Vanadium and titanium into the life: vanadium and titanium and its application (a)

Industry News
2018/11/21 19:27

Panzhihua vanadium and titanium reserves of resources ranks first in the country, is China's vanadium and titanium are.

First, the application of vanadium

Vanadium is a rare chemical element, which is significantly lower than the main industrial metals (such as: iron 4.2% ~ 4.7%; aluminum 7.4% ~ 8.2%; titanium 0.45% ~ 0.61% % Of the average content).

(A) the application of vanadium in the iron and steel industry

85% of the world's vanadium is mainly used for steel additives to improve the strength of steel, toughness and heat resistance, vanadium is a universal alloy additives, add a small amount of steel in the vanadium (a few percent and a few thousandths) (0.04% -0.15% V), high speed steel (1% -3% V), tool steels, stainless steels (2% to 14% V) and permanent magnets.

The main role of vanadium in steel is: vanadium and steel in the role of carbon and nitrogen, constitute a small and hard refractory metal carbides and nitrides, these compounds act as a fining agent and precipitation enhancer, can increase the steel Of the strength, toughness and wear resistance. Vanadium is used in tools and tool steels. In high carbon steels, vanadium forms hard carbides, achieving the required wear resistance for molds and machine tools. At high temperatures, the carbide does not become soft, so that when the high-speed tools hot, the edge of the blade will not deteriorate. Gas turbine engine bearings also require the same characteristics, but also the use of this steel. Vanadium steel is widely used in oil and gas pipelines, machinery manufacturing, construction, automobiles, railways, pressure vessels, bridges, metal molds and other fields, with high strength, toughness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance.

(B) the application of vanadium in non-ferrous metals

The world has 5% to 7% of the vanadium is used for non-ferrous metals. Titanium alloying can increase its strength 1 to 2 times, but also improve the corrosion resistance, vanadium is one of the main alloying elements of titanium, vanadium-aluminum alloy is added. Vanadium and titanium composition of the most important alloy is Ti-6Al-4V (TC4), it is stable at room temperature, with high fatigue performance for aircraft skeleton and fasteners, compressor turbine blades and blades .

In cobalt-nickel alloy containing vanadium, has a strong magnetic, can be used as soft magnetic, high magnetic materials used.

Vanadium niobium tantalum alloy has a strong high temperature resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, and for space shuttles and satellites and missiles.

Vanadium-niobium alloy, vanadium gallium (V3Ga), vanadium silicon (V3Si) is a good superconducting material.

(C) the application of vanadium in the chemical industry

The world has 5% of the vanadium used in chemical industry.

1. Vanadium compounds in the chemical industry for the production of sulfuric acid, petroleum cracking, organic synthesis catalyst. For example: sodium vanadate and ammonium vanadate can be used as a catalyst in the production of sulfuric acid. Vanadium pentoxide can be used as out-of-stock catalysts and in the oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid, polymerization and oxalic acid production. Ammonium metavanadate can be used as the production of phosphate fertilizer, nylon, polyester, polyvinyl chloride and other catalysts; vanadium chloride as the production of propylene and automotive rubber catalyst.

2. Pigments, such as bismuth vanadate pigment for plastics, rubber, ceramics, paints, printing inks, especially in the yellow car paint, automotive refinish paint, high-level architectural coatings applications. Bismuth vanadate temperature of paint. Vanadium zirconium blue material: Vanadium zirconium blue zirconium ceramic glaze with the pigment, is widely used in ceramics, enamel and glass industry, can produce blue, green, yellow, as blue coloring agent.

3. Other applications

Vanadium redox fluid batteries: in the storage of energy is increasingly important. These batteries are like small chemical plants, different valence of vanadium salt, from the tank out through the pump, the battery cathode and anode half-cell flow. The electrolyte on both sides of the battery is separated by a diaphragm and can not be mixed. Is the battery liquid pollution, because both sides of the battery using vanadium salt, pollution problems will be reduced to a minimum. It is expected that this type of battery will be used in telecommunications as a load-balancing device associated with power generation and in regenerative primary energy systems, as well as in powered systems such as forklifts, electric vehicles, golf carts and the like.

V-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys: hydrogen storage alloys are widely used in fuel cells, electric vehicles, nickel hydrogen batteries, hydrogen storage and transportation of hydrogen and so on. Vanadium is the only absorption at room temperature, hydrogen release of the metal, hydrogen absorption of theoretically up to 3.8%. At present, a vanadium-based hydrogen storage alloy which has a hydrogen absorption capacity of more than 3.3%, a hydrogen releasing amount of more than 2.3% and a hydrogen desorption temperature of less than 100C has been developed.

Yttrium vanadate crystal: is a birefringent crystal, with close to the hardness of the glass, not deliquescence, processing easy coating and so on. Therefore, yttrium vanadate crystals are widely used in laser communications, laser ranging, laser printing, satellite measurement, navigation and other fields.

Vanadium light-emitting materials: yttrium vanadyl phosphate and yttrium europium vanadate are highly efficient red luminescent material, has been used as a color TV red phosphor components, is still widely used in high-pressure mercury vapor discharge fluorescent lamp as adjustment Chromaticity of the light-emitting material. Vanadium-containing luminescent materials will have broad application prospects. Luminescent materials have been widely used in science and technology, industry, agriculture and people to daily life, can be predicted, luminous materials will certainly be widely used in the 21st century.

Vanadium dioxide optical conversion coating is a very promising material, its application prospects, the use of its phase transition optical, electrical and other special properties can be used for solar control materials, infrared radiation thermometer, thermistor, Thermoresistive materials, non-linear or linear resistive materials, temperature sensors, tunable microwaves, thermoresistive materials, color filters, thermoresistive materials, thermoresistive switches, variable mirrors, infrared pulsed laser protection films, optical disk media materials, holographic storage materials, electrochromic display materials, color filters, thermochromic display materials Switching devices, infrared optical modulation materials, high sensitivity strain sensors, transparent conductive material, antistatic coating and so on.